BRAF is a proto-oncogene that encodes serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf (p94), which is a member of the RAF family of serine/threonine protein kinases. p94 regulates the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway and plays a critical role in cell division, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis.
Mutations in BRAF is associated with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and Costello syndrome. Onset of BRAF dysregulation in later stages of life is associated with multiple cancers including malignant melanoma, thyroid carcinoma, colorectal cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, hairy cell leukemia, lung adenocarcinoma, and non-small cell lung cancer.
Fakhruddin et al. (2017) studied the BRAF mutation types and numbers in paraffin blocks from 317 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. BRAF mutations were found to be predominant in conventional PTC and the microcarcinoma subtypes. BRAF mutation in conventional PTC was found to be significantly correlated to older age.